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   THE UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS - 1700's   

The United Empire Loyalists resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution. As their name suggests, the Loyalists were loyal to Britain and did not share the Americans' independent aspirations. Some fled north during the war of independence, and some came after, fleeing persecution by the victorious revolutionaries. They settled primarily in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Upper and Lower Canada (present day Ontario and Québec), where the Crown gave them land grants to encourage their resettlement. Not all Loyalists were white Anglo-Saxons; a lot of black slaves had fled to the British side during the American revolution and came north after the revolutionaries won, with most settling in Nova Scotia. About 2000 Iroquois Loyalists came north as well, perhaps the most famous was Chief Joseph Brant who settled with his people around the Grand River in Ontario.  

Realizing the importance of some type of recognition, on November 9, 1789, Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor General of British North America, declared "that it was his Wish to put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire". As a result of Dorchester's statement, the printed militia rolls carried the notation:

Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: UE or U.E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire.

   THE GERMAN PALATINES -1700's   

The German Palatines were early 18th-century emigrants from the Middle Rhine region of the Holy Roman Empire, including a minority from the Palatinate, by which the entire group was known. They immigrated to England as refugees and were both Protestant and Catholic farmers. Towards the end of the 17th century and into the 18th, the wealthy region was repeatedly invaded by French troops during the religious wars. They imposed continuous military requisitions, causing widespread devastation and famine. Their arrival in England, and the inability of the British Government to integrate them, caused a highly politicized debate over the merits of immigration. The English tried to settle them in England, Ireland and the North American colonies to strengthen their position abroad, in particular the colony of New York in British North America.

The English transported nearly 3,000 German Palatines in ten ships to New York in 1710. Many of them were first assigned to work camps along the Hudson River to work off the cost of their passage. Close to 850 families settled in the Hudson River Valley, primarily in what are now Germantown and Saugerties, New York. They produced stores for the Navy in work camps on each side of the Hudson. In 1723, 100 heads of families from the work camps were the first Europeans to acquire land west of Little Falls, New York, in present-day Herkimer County on both the north and south sides along the Mohawk River. This settlement was halfway through the valley, on the frontier far beyond Schenectady and Albany. Later additional Palatine Germans settled along the Mohawk River for several miles, founding towns such as Palatine and Palatine Bridge and in the Schoharie Valley.